Definitions and Faqs
- Exploitable water resources
- External renewable water resources
- Gender Analysis
- Gender awareness
- Gender Blind
- Gender Budgeting
- Gender Developmen Index (GDI)
- Gender Disaggregated Statistics
- Gender Discrimination
- Gender Division of Labour
- Gender Equality & Equity
- Gender Impact Assessment
- Gender Mainstreaming
- Gender Needs
- Gender Planning
- Gender Relations
- Gender Training
- Good Practice
- Input Indicator (Means, Resources)
- Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM)
- Internal natural renewable water resources
- Natural Inflow
- Output and Outcome Indicators (Achievements, End, Distal, Effects, Impacts, Results, Product, Performance)
- Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)
- Process Indicator (Throughput, Activity, Delivery, Conversion, Action)
- Qualitative Analysis
- Qualitative Indicator (Soft, Subjective)
- Quantitative Indicator (Hard, Objective)
- Renewable natural water resources
- Risk/Enabling Indicator (Contextual, Situational, External, Environmental, Surrounding)
- Sex & Gender
- Women’s Empowerment
- Women’s Human Rights
The distinctive patterns of ideas, beliefs, and norms which characterise the way of life and relations of a society or group within a society. Culturally determined gender ideologies define rights and responsibilities and what is “appropriate” behaviour for women and men. They also influence access to and control over resources, and participation in decision-making. These gender ideologies often reinforce male power and the idea of women’s inferiority. Culture is sometimes interpreted narrowly as “custom” or “tradition”, and assumed to be natural and unchangeable. Despite these assumptions, culture is fluid and enduring.
It is a time-bound exercise aiming at assessing whether completed (or on-going) programmes (or projects) achieve the intended objectives. Evaluation is normally an integral part of M&E process and, in that sense, the indicators provided by the monitoring system are examined regularly and the results of the evaluation are passed on to the management for appropriate action. Evaluation is also understood as the process whereby a project or programme is assessed against the objective that was supposed to be achieved.
Exploitable water resources
English: Exploitable water resources
French: Ressources en eau exploitables
Spanish: Recursos hídricos aprovechables
(manageable resources) Part of the water resources which is considered to be available for development under specific technical, economic
External renewable water resources
English: External renewable water resources
French: Ressources en eau renouvelables exterieures
Spanish: Recursos hídricos renovables externos
Part of the country’s renewable water resources shared with neighbouring countries. The total external resources are the inflow from neighbouring countries ( trans-boundary groundwater and surface water inflows), and the part of the shared lakes or border rivers. The assessment considered the natural resources generally ; if there are reservation in neighbouring countries, they are called actual resources re
Refers to the social, economic, and cultural roles and relations between women and men; takes into account the different responsibilities of women and men in a given culture or location and different population groups(children, aged people, ethnics groups, etc.). FAO, 2003.
It consists on the systematic gathering and examination of information on gender differences and social relations in order to identify, understand and redress inequities based on gender. Gender analysis is a valuable descriptive and diagnostic tool for development planners and crucial to gender mainstreaming efforts. The methodology and components of gender analysis are shaped by how gender issues are understood in the institution concerned. There are a number of different approaches to gender analysis.
Are the processes (information, education, training, publications, meetings etc..) whereby gender mainstreaming and gender balance are brought to the attention of the society in general.
A term describing an intervention that does not identify or recognize its differential gender-disaggregated impact, if any.
Focuses on the analysis of public expenditure and revenue from a gender perspective, identifying the implications for women/girls compared to men/boys. The ultimate goal is to reprioritise both expenditures and revenue raising methods in order to promote equality.
Gender Developmen Index (GDI)
It is a well being indicator developed by UNDP that includes gender inequality in its overall assessment of aggregate well-being in a country
Gender Disaggregated Statistics
Statistics and data gathered and broken down by sex in order to aid comparison.
The systematic, unfavourable treatment of individuals on the basis of their gender, which denies them rights, opportunities or resources. Women’s differential access to power and control of resources is central to this discrimination in all institutional spheres, i.e. the household, community, market, and state.
Gender Division of Labour
The socially determined ideas and practices which define what roles and activities are deemed appropriate for women and men. Gender divisions of labour are not necessarily rigidly defined in terms of men’s and women’s roles, as is sometimes assumed. They are characterised by co-operation in joint activities, as well as by separation. Often, the accepted norm regarding gender divisions varies from the actual practice.
Gender Equality & Equity
The term “gender equity” is often used interchangeably with “gender equality”. Here, a distinction is drawn between these two concepts, reflecting divergent understandings of gender differences and of the appropriate strategies to address these. Gender equality denotes women having the same opportunities in life as men, including the ability to participate in the public sphere.
Gender equity denotes the equivalence in life outcomes for women and men, recognising their different needs and interests, and requiring a redistribution of power and resources. An equity approach implies that all development policies and interventions need to be scrutinised for their impact on gender relations. It necessitates a rethinking of policies and programmes to take account of men’s and women’s different realities and interests.
Gender Impact Assessment
The process of gender impact involves an assessment of policies and practices to see whether they will affect women and men differently with a view to adapting policies/practices to make sure that any discriminatory effects are eliminated. The process should be adopted as an integral part of work than a goal to reach. When effectively implemented, it becomes part and parcel of the everyday work of the organisation and no long appears as an additional task or action. It is then, in effect, mainstreamed. In other words, it is the means to an end; that end is gender mainstreaming. The process essentially involves answering two key questions:
- Is there an inequality or a potential inequality between women and men?
- What can be done about it?
The three compelling arguments for undertaking gender impact assessment are:
- Fulfilment of legal obligations;
- Achievement of equality and fairness goals;
- Improving efficiency and effectiveness of organisations.
The process is judged on its outcomes. The opportunities presented by the process must be accompanied by the resources and political will necessary to make the opportunities materialise. The long-term outcome, that is full and equal participation of women and men at all levels of society will be well worth the investment.
An organisational strategy to bring a gender perspective to all aspects of an institution’s policy and activities, through building gender capacity and accountability. With a mainstreaming strategy, gender concerns are seen as important to all aspects of development; for all sectors and areas of activity, and a fundamental part of the planning process. Any approach to mainstreaming requires sufficient resources, as well as high-level commitment and authority. A combined strategy can be particularly powerful. This involves the synergy of a catalytic central gender unit with a cross-sectoral policy oversight and monitoring role, combined with a web of gender specialists across the institution. The building of alliances both within the institution and with outside constituencies, such as women’s organisations, is crucial for success. Mainstreaming tools include gender training, introducing incentive structures which reward efforts on gender, and the development of gender-specific operational tools such as checklists and guidelines.
Shared and prioritised needs identified by women that arise from their common experiences as a gender. Needs, as well as interests, result from a political process of contestation and interpretation and thus should not be externally defined or seen as fixed. Strategic gender needs (SGNs) are those needs identified by women that require strategies for challenging male dominance and privilege. These needs may relate to inequalities in the gender division of labour, in ownership and control of resources, in participation in decision-making, or to experiences of domestic and other sexual violence.
The technical and political processes and procedures necessary to implement gender-sensitive policy and practice. The purpose of gender planning is to ensure gender-sensitive policy outcomes through a systematic and inclusive process. If gender policy has transformatory goals, then gender planning as a process will necessarily be a political one, involving consultation with and participation of different stakeholders. The gender planning tools include gender roles identification, gender needs assessment, and the collection of disaggregated data at the household level. The gender planning procedures involve the diagnosis of the gender problem, formulation of gender objectives, procedures for monitoring and evaluation, gender-based consultation and participation, and identification of an entry strategy. The final aspect, practice, identifies the need to institutionalise gender planning, and to operationalise this through recognised procedures. Building capacity amongst planners is necessary to ensure policy is transformed into practice with the minimum of dilution.
Hierarchical relations of power between women and men that tend to disadvantage women. These gender hierarchies are often accepted as “natural” but are socially determined relations, culturally based, and are subject to change over time. They can be seen in a range of gendered practices, such as the division of labour and resources, and gendered ideologies, such as ideas of acceptable behaviour for women and men.
A facilitated process of developing awareness and capacity on gender issues to bring about personal or organisational change for gender equality. Gender training is one of a range of institutional strategies used to integrate gender into the work of development co-operation agencies. Its objectives can include raising general awareness of the relevance of gender to an organisation’s work and skills transfer in gender analysis, gender-aware planning, programme design and implementation. Gender training typically involves: group discussion and reflection on gender roles and relations; case studies of the impact of development policies and programmes on gender relations; as well as role plays and simulation games which highlight gender dynamics. As awareness grows within an organisation, so the emphasis of gender training shifts to more tailored courses to meet specific needs and demands, and to more skills-based training. Experience suggests that training is most effective when it is part of a broader strategy of organisational change.
A statement that contains advice and guidance on policy or programme implementation
An indicator is normally defined as summarising a large amount of information in a single figure in such a way as to give an indication of change over time. Bauer (1966) described social indicators as "statistical series, and all other forms of evidence.... that enable us to assess where we stand and are going with respect to values and goals, and to evaluate specific programmes and determine their impact". This characterisation of indicators is useful because it highlights:
- the inclusion of different forms of information, i.e. statistical data, as well as qualitative descriptions based on attitudinal information;
- the link to objectives;
- the diagnostic role (during the implementation and monitoring phases of projects) and the evaluative role (upon completion) of indicators; and
- the link to measurement with respect to values and goals, i.e the normative nature of indicators.
Indicators, as the name suggests, are best interpreted as indicative or suggestive, that is they are not prescriptive in nature in terms of providing diagnosis and remedies.
A gender indicator provides "direct evidence of the status of women, relative to some agreed normative standard or explicit reference group" (
1985). In other words, a statistic becomes an indicator when it has a reference point against which value judgments can be made. A Gender Indicator can be defined as using quantitative and qualitative measures to capture gender-related changes in society over time. Johnston
Input Indicator (Means, Resources)
These are concerned with resources devoted to project or programme: funding, human and non-human resources, infrastructure and institutions.
Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM)
IWRM is a cross-sectoral policy approach to respond to the growing demands in water in the context of finite water supply. It is an approach that aims to ensure the coordinated development of water, land and related resources to optimise economic and social welfare without compromising the sustainability of the environmental system (GWP, 2000).
Internal natural renewable water resources
English: Internal natural renewable water resources
French: Ressources en eau naturelles renouvelables interieures (ecoulement interieur)
Spanish: Recursos hídricos internos renovables
(internal flow) Average annual flow of rivers and recharge of groundwater generated from endogenous precipitation.(AQUASTAT, FAO)
It is a continuous process that aims at providing early indicators of progress or, lack of it, in the achievement of project or programme objectives. It is the regular collection, analysis and distribution of information and data on the progress of the activities and programmes implemented.
English: Natural inflow
French: Ecoulement entrant naturel
Spanish: Caudal de entrada natural
Amount of water which would flow into the country under natural conditions, i.e. without human influence. It includes external surface water inflow or groundwater.and environmental conditions.(AQUASTAT, FAO)
Output and Outcome Indicators (Achievements, End, Distal, Effects, Impacts, Results, Product, Performance)
These indicators should be the central consideration in evaluating a project in terms of its stated objectives. A distinction can be made between "output" or "intermediate" objectives, and "long-term" or distal objectives. The former type (output) concern the mix of products and services that are delivered shortly after a donor funding of a project is deemed to have been completed, while the latter type (outcome) evaluate the effectiveness of the project over a longer time frame, preferably three to five years after funding has ended. The distinction between "outputs" and "outcomes" often hinges upon practical considerations related to the type of evaluation one wishes to perform, that is a "terminal" evaluation or a comprehensive "in-depth" retrospective evaluation.
Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA)
PRA is a survey method that has been developed since the late 1980s by numerous institutions, and particularly NGOs, in about forty developing countries. Conceptually, central to PRA has been a willingness to learn from local communities, and an explicit belief that local communities, including women, have an in-depth understanding of their local environment which can be used and adapted to make development projects more relevant to these communities. Methodologically, the origins of PRA have been the dissatisfaction felt with traditional approaches to rural surveys, which tended to be extractive of information and non-participatory. PRA uses anthropological type methods but aims to let local people take the lead in evaluation and to use methods that are empowering of local people rather than extractive of their knowledge.
Process Indicator (Throughput, Activity, Delivery, Conversion, Action)
These indicators refer to what is done with the inputs during the delivery process, i.e. the succession of tasks or activities in carrying out a project. These indicators, which are the main focus during monitoring, serve primarily to gauge or track progress towards the intended results. Care should be taken that they do not displace measures for evaluating later stages of project results.
Qualitative analysis involves examination of quantitative and qualitative social process through use of a number of analytical techniques. Consider changes in gender roles over time as an example, where it would be necessary to use qualitative analysis along with quantitative and qualitative indicators. Qualitative indicators would be men's and women's views of these changes and why they had taken place. Qualitative analysis would examine the social forces at work that had caused changes. Qualitative analysis therefore explains why certain indicators of phenomena are in place and how they can be changed over time.
Qualitative Indicator (Soft, Subjective)
Qualitative indicators deal with living standards and the quality of life using information about perceived levels of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with personal and socio-economic conditions. Qualitative indicators are subject to some quantification, for example the numbers of people expressing satisfaction with a development project would be a qualitative indicator of the projects success.
Quantitative Indicator (Hard, Objective)
Quantitative indicators are based on information gleaned from censuses, surveys, enumerations and administrative records and are measures of economic and non-economic aspects of living standards and the quality of life.
Renewable natural water resources
English: Renewable natural water resources
French: Ressources en eau renouvelables naturelles
Spanish: Recursos hídricos totales naturales renovables (RHTR)
The sum of internal and external renewable water resources. It corresponds to the maximum theoretical amount of water available for a country on an average year on a long reference period.(AQUASTAT, FAO)
Risk/Enabling Indicator (Contextual, Situational, External, Environmental, Surrounding)
These indicators serve to identify the largely exogenous or larger forces which may impede or facilitate the accomplishment of the project's objectives. Typical examples of these indicators include general economic conditions, the legal system, socio-cultural practices and traditions, institutional structures, community characteristics, internal and external political events, and environmental events.
Sex & Gender
“Sex” refers to the biological characteristics that categorise someone as either female or male; whereas “gender” refers to the socially determined ideas and practices of what it is to be female or male. Whilst often used interchangeably, “sex” and “gender” are in fact distinct terms.
“Sex”: a person’s sex is biologically determined as female or male according to certain identifiable physical features which are fixed. Women’s marginalisation has often been seen as “natural” and a fact of their biology. However, these biological differences cannot explain why women have less access to power and lower status than men. To understand and challenge the cultural value placed on someone’s biological sex, and unequal power hierarchies, we need the relational concept of “gender”.
“Gender”: how a person’s biology is culturally valued and interpreted into locally accepted ideas of what it is to be a woman or man. “Gender” and the hierarchical power relations between women and men based on this are socially constructed, and not derived directly from biology. Gender identities and associated expectations of roles and responsibilities are therefore changeable between and within cultures. Gendered power relations permeate social institutions so that gender is never absent.
A ‘bottom-up’ process of transforming gender power relations, through individuals or groups developing awareness of women’s subordination and building their capacity to challenge it. The term ‘empowerment’ is now widely used in development agency policy and programme documents, in general, but also specifically in relation to women. However, the concept is highly political, and its meaning contested. Thus, there are dangers in the uncritical overuse of the term in agency rhetoric, particularly where it becomes associated with specific activities, or used in simplistic ways. Central to the concept of women’s empowerment is an understanding of power itself. Women’s empowerment does not imply women taking over control previously held by men, but rather the need to transform the nature of power relations. Power may be understood as ‘power within,’ or self confidence, ‘power with’, or the capacity to organise with others towards a common purpose, and the ‘power to’ effect change and take decisions, rather than ‘power over’ others. Empowerment is essentially a bottom-up process rather than something that can be formulated as a top-down strategy. This means that development agencies cannot claim to 'empower women', nor can empowerment be defined in terms of specific activities or end results.
Women’s Human Rights
The recognition that women’s rights are human rights and that women experience injustices solely because of their gender.